Lesson No.
Topics Covered
Resources & Links
Proton, Neutron, Electron, charge and mass in SI units and relative units, specific charge of nuclei and of ions, atomic mass unit is not required
Proton Number Z, nuclear number A, nuclide notation, isotopes
  • State the charge and mass in SI units and relative units for the proton, neutron and electron.
  • Define specific charge and calculate its value for nuclei and ions.
  • Interpret nuclide notation including the Proton number Z and the nucleon number A.
  • Define what is meant by isotope.
Video - In Search of Giants - Atoms and the Periodic Table (1 of 15)
The strong nuclear force, it's role in keeping the nucleus stable, short-range attraction to about 3fm, very short range repulsion below about 0.5 fm
Equations for alpha decay and β- decay including the neutrino.
  • To recap specific charge.
  • To know what holds the nucleus together.
  • To know what happens when α, β and γ radiation are emitted.

Video - In Search of Giants (9 of 15) - The Weak and Strong Nuclear Forces
Photon model of electromagnetic radiation, the Planck constant E=hf=hc/lambda.
  • To know what a photon is.
  • To know how to calculate the energy of a photon.
  • To be able to calculate how many photons are emitted by a light source every second.

Video - In Search of Giants - (11 of 15) The Weird Quantum World
For every type of particle there is a corresponding antiparticle inc. positron, anti-proton, anti neutron and anti-neutrino, Comparison of particle and antiparticle masses, charge and rest energy in MeV
knowledge of annihilation and pair production processes and respective energies involved
  • Compare rest mass energies of particles and anti-particles
  • Describe the processes of pair production and annihilation.
  • Calculate energies involved in pair production and annihilation.

Video - The Matter with Antimatter
Concept of exchange particles to explain forces between elementary particles, the electromagnetic force, virtual photons as the exchange particles.
The weak interaction limited β-, β+ decay electron capture and electron-proton collisions; W+ and W- as the exchange particles, Feynman diagrams.
  • Describe how forces are caused by particle exchange.
  • State that for the electromagnetic force, virtual photons are the exchange particles
  • Draw Feynman Diagrams for the following interactions:
  • Neutron-neutrino interaction
  • Proton-antineutrino interaction
  • β− decay
  • β+ decay
  • Electron capture

Video - In Search of Giants (12 of 15) QED - The Jewel of Physics
The Particle Zoo - Feynman Diagram Practice
Introduction to particle accelerators.
Conservation of charge in allowed decays.
  • Define the electron volt.
  • Describe how scientists look for new particles.
  • State some quantities which are conserved during decays.
  • Determine whether a decay occurs based on the conservation rules.

Video - In Search of Giants (13 of 15) - Particle Accelerators and the Higgs Particle
Classifying particles
Hadrons, baryons, antibaryons, mesons, hadrons are subject to the strong nuclear force,The proton is the only stable baryon into which other baryons eventually decay, in particular the decay of the neutron should be known.
  • Explain what is meant by the terms hadron, lepton, baryon and meson.
  • Recall the lepton numbers and baryon numbers for a variety of particles.
Video - In Search of Giants (4 of 15) - The Existence of Quarks
Leptons: electrons, muons, neutrinos, leptons are subject to the weak interaction, baryon numbers for the hadrons. Leptons numbers given in the data booklet.
  • To learn about lepton conservation rules
  • Start practicing questions!

up, down, strange quarks only, properties of quarks: charge baryon number and strangeness, combinations of quarks and antiquarks

Video - In Search of Giants (5 of 15) - The Standard Model of Particle Physics

change of quark character in β-, β+ decay, application of the conservation laws for charge, baryon number, lepton number and strangeness to particle interactions

Large Hadron Rap

Quantum Phenomena

Lesson No.
Topics Covered
Resources & Links
Introduction and brief description of the photoelectric effect.
Photon model of electromagnetic radiation, the Planck constant, E=hf=hc/λ.
  • Describe the three main conclusions of the photo-electric effect.
  • Describe what the ultra-violet catastrophe was and explain how Planck solved the problem.
  • Describe Einstein’s photon model of radiation.

Photoelectric Effect Simulation
Notes to Help with Homework (Scroll Down to Diagram above Question 1)
Work function phi, threshold frequency, f0, photoelectric equation hf= phi + Ek, stopping potential experiment not required.
  • Determining Planck's constant, work function from plot of E vs. f
  • Define the work function & threshold frequency
  • State and use the photoelectric equation.
  • Explain why electrons leave with a range of kinetic energies.
  • Plot the results from the vacuum photocell to determine Planck’s constant and the work function.

The electron volt, ionisation and excitation.
  • Explain what is meant by the terms ionisation and excitation.
  • Define the electron volt (eV) and be able to convert between Joules and eV.
  • Describe what happens inside an atom when an electron becomes excited

Discrete energy levels in atoms.
Understanding of ionisation and excitation in the fluorescent tube.
  • Explain what is meant by the term energy level.
  • Describe what happens when excited atoms de-excite.
  • Calculate the energy of emitted photons using the equation hf = E1 - E2.
  • Explain how a fluorescent tube works

Line spectra (e.g. of atomic hydrogen) as evidence of transitions between discrete energy levels in atoms hf = E1 - E2.
  • Explain the occurrence of line spectra (e.g. of atomic hydrogen) as evidence of transitions between discrete energy levels in atoms.
  • Practice calculations.
  • How to enter and store numbers in your calculator.

Electron diffraction suggests the wave nature of particles and the photoelectric effect suggests the particle nature of electromagnetic waves, de Broglie wavelength lambda=h/mv where mv is the momentum
  • Explain what is meant by wave-particle duality.
  • Describe the main points of de Broglie’s hypothesis that matter particles also have a wave-like nature.
  • State and use the equation λ = h/p = h/mv
  • Describe evidence for de Broglie’s hypothesis.

Calculation practice, exam question practice


Lesson No.
Topics Covered
Resources & Links

electron current as the rate of flow of charge


p.d. as work done per unit charge, W=IVt, P=IV.


Resistance is defined by R = V/I.
Ohm's law as a special case where I is proportional to V.


For an ohmic conductor, a semiconductor diode and a filament lamp


candidates should have experience of the use of a current sensor and voltage sensor with a data logger to capture data from to determine V-I curves.


rho = RA/l, description of the qualitative effect of temperature on the resistance of metal conductors and thermistors, applications.
Superconductivity as a property of certain materials which have zero resistivity at and below a critical temperature which depends on the material, applications


conservation of charge and energy in simple dc circuits
The relationships between currents, voltages and resistances in series and parallel circuits including cells in series and identical cells in parallel

Electricity Question Paper + Mark Scheme Jan 2004

and for June 2004:-


Resistors in series, in parallel
Energy E = Ivt, P = IV, P = I^2R practice application e.g. understanding of high current requirement for a starter motor in a motor car

Quantum Particle Question Paper + Mark Scheme Jan 2004

For June 2004


ε=E/Q and ε=I(R+r), applications; e.g. low internal resistance for a car battery


Further calculation practice - the relationships between currents, voltages and resistances in cells in series and identical cells in parallel.
No powerpoint

More Calculations


The potential divider used to supply variable p.d. e.g. application as an audio volume control, examples should include the use of variable resistors, thermistors and L.D.R.'s


Sinusoidal voltages and currents only; root mean square, peak and peak-to-peak values for sinusoidal waveforms only.
Application to calculation of mains electricity peak and peak-to-peak voltage values


Use of an oscilloscope as a dc and ac voltmeter, to measure time intervals and frequencies and to display a.c. waveforms.


Oscilloscope Application - Ultrasound
Past papers with mark schemes for Quantum and Particle:-
January 2005

June 2005

Past papers with mark schemes for Electricity:-
January 2005

June 2005

Mark Schemes

Particle & Quantum Mark Schemes

Electricity Mark Schemes