Unit 5: PHA5A-5D Nuclear Physics, Thermal Physics and an Optional Topic


Nuclear Energy

Lesson No.
Date
Topics Covered
Resources & Links
0
-
Choosing the Option





1
04/09/09
Alpha, Beta & Gamma Radiation - relative hazards of exposure to humans, safe handling of radioactive sources (in relation to inverse square law)


2
04/09/09
Nuclear Radius - Estimates of radius, dependence of radius on nucleon number, calculation of nuclear density
Estimating radius of the nucleus using Electron Diffraction - Homework

3
07/09/09
Estimating radius of the nucleus from :alpha: scattering

4
11/09/09
Safety Aspects - Fuel used, shielding, emergyency shut-down. Production, handling and storage of radioactive waste materials

1

Discovery of the Nucleus


Video - In Search of Giants (3 of 15) - The Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus
2

The Properties of alpha, beta, gamma radaion

2b

PSV - Beta absorption by Aluminium- 1/2 value

3

More About Alpha, Beta, Gamma

4

The Dangers of Radioactivity

5

Radioactive Decay




6

The Mole

7

The Theory of Radioactive Decay


8

Radioactive isotopes in Use

9

More about Decay Modes (practice decay questions)


Nuclide Chart
Lifetime of a Neutron in a Nucleus
10

Nuclear Energy Levels

11

Nuclear Radius





12

Energy and Mass


Video - Einstein's equation of Life and Death Part 1
Video - Einstein's equation of Life and Death Part 2
13

Binding Energy


14

Fission and Fusion


Video - Einstein's equation of Life and Death Part 3
Video - Einstein's equation of Life and Death Part 4
15

The Thermal Nuclear Reactor



Thermal Physics

Lesson No.
Date
Topics Covered
Resources & Links
5
02/09/09
Calculations involving change of energy for a change of temperature.



6
02/10/09
Practical Skills Verification - determination of specific heat capacity of a solid using data loggers.




7
05/10/09
Calculations involving change of energy for a change of state.

8
18/09/09
25/09/09
Gas Laws as experimental relationships between p,V,T and mass, concept of absolute zero of temperature.
Practical Work - Gas Laws.


9
21/09/09
Ideal gas equation as pV = nRT and pV = NkT, Molar mass and molecular mass

10
02/10/09
Explanation of relationships between p, V and T in terms of a simple molecular model

11
05/10/09
Assumptions leading to and derivation of pV = 1/3Nmc(rms)^2

12
09/10/09
Derivation of average molecular kinetic energy equation.

13
16/10/09
Past Paper Question Practice and beta radiation PSV

14
16/10/09
Past Paper Question Practice and beta radiation PSV

15
19/10/09
Finish Nuclear & Thermal. Thermal Revision and Practice Exam Questions


Astrophysics

Telescopes

Lesson No.
Date
Topics Covered
Resources & Links
16
06/11/09
Principal focus, focal length of converging lens, formation of images by a converging lens.
Ray diagrams, 1/u + 1/v = 1/f

Khan Academy: Concave Lenses
Khan Academy: Convex Lenses
17
09/11/09
Ray diagram to show the image formation in normal adjustment, angular magnification in normal adjustment
Focal lengths of the lenses


18
23/11/09
Focal point of concave mirror, cassegrain arrangement, ray diagram to show path of rays through the telescope.
Relative merits of reflectors and refractors including a qualitative treatment of spherical and chromatic aberration.

19
27/11/09
Appreciation of diffraction pattern produced by circular aperture, resolving power of telescope, Rayleigh criterion


20
04/12/09
Use of CCD to capture images, Structure and operation of the charged couple device (see specification for description)

21
07/12/09
Radio telescopes - similarities and differences compared to optical telescopes including structure, positioning and use.
Homework :)



Classification of Stars

Lesson No.
Date
Topics Covered
Resources & Links
22

Relation between brightness and apparent magnitude.
Relation between intensity and apparent magnitude, Measurement of m from photographic plates and distinction between photographic and visual magnitude not required.

23

Parsec and light year, definition of M, relation to m, m - M = 5 log (d/10)


Khan Academy: Parsec Definition
24

Stefan's Law and Wien's Displacement Law, General shape of black body curve, experimental verification not required, assumption that star is a black body.
Use of Wien's displacement law to estimate black-body temperature of sources. Inverse square law.
Use of Stefan's law to estimate area needed for sources to have same power output as the Sun. P = σAT^4.

25

Description of the main classes, temperature related to absorption spectra limited to Hydrogen Balmer absorption lines


26

General shape : main sequence, dwarfs and giants, axis scales range from -15 to 10, 50000 K to 2500 K

Khan Academy: Becoming a Red Giant
Khan Academy: White and Black Dwarfs
27

Stellar evolution: path of a star similar to our Sun on the Hertzsprung Russell diagram from formation to white dwarf

28

Defining properties, rapid increase in absolute magnitude of supernova: density of neutron stars, escape velocity for black holes.

Khan Academy: Supernova

29

Supermassive black holes at the centre of galaxies, calculation of the radius of the event horizon for a black hole Schwarzschild radius (Rs)

Khan Academy: Black Holes
Khan Academy: Supermassive Black Holes

Cosmology

Lesson No.
Date
Topics Covered
Resources & Links
30

Z=v/c. for v<< c applied to optical and radio frequencies
Calculations on binary stars viewed in the plane of orbit, galaxies and quasars

31

Red shift, v=Hd, simple interpretation as expansion of universe; estimation of age of universe, assuming H is constant


Khan Academy: Red Shift
32

Use of supernova as standard candles to determine distances. Controversy concerning accelerating universe and dark energy

33

Qualitative treatment of Big Bang theory including evidence from cosmological microwave background radiation and relative abundance of H and He

Khan Academy: Big Bang Introduction
34

Quasars as the most distant measurable objects, discovery as bright radio sources
Quasars show large optical red shifts; estimation of distance.
Khan Academy: Quasars
35

Past Paper Questions and Mark Schemes
Thermal:-




Nuclear Energy Question Only:-




Nuclear & Astrophysics:-




Mark Schemes


Nuclear Instability & Astrophysics:-




Nuclear Energy Questions Only:-








Thermal Questions Only:-